T. Honkela, V. Pulkki, and T. Kohonen,** Contextual Relations of Words in Grimm Tales, Analyzed by Self-Organizing Map**, * Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN’95)*, Paris, France, October 9-13, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 3-7.

J. Iivarinen, M. Peura, and A. Visa,** Verification of a Multispectral Cloud Classifier**,* Proc. 9th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis*, Uppsala, Sweden, June 6-9, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 591-599.

J. Iivarinen, K. Valkealahti, A. Visa, and O. Simula,** Development of a Cloud Classifier**, Report A25, Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, 1995, 49 p.

J. Joutsensalo and J. Karhunen, ** A Nonlinear Extension of the Generalized Hebbian Learning**, *Neural Processing Letters*, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 5-8, 1995.

J. Joutsensalo, A. Miettinen, and M. Zeindl, ** Nonlinear Dimension Reduction by Combining Competitive and Distributed Learning**, *Proc. 1995 International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN'95)*, Paris, France, October 9-13, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 395-400.

J. Joutsensalo and A. Miettinen,** Self-Organizing Operator Map for Nonlinear Dimension Reduction**, *Proc. International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 111-114.

S.-L. Joutsiniemi, S. Kaski, and A. Larsen, ** Self-Organizing Map in Recognition of Topographic Patterns of EEG Spectra**, *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering*, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1062-1068, 1995.

J. Kangas, ** Using Self-Organizing Map in Error Tolerant Transmission of Vector Quantized Images**, Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks (WCNN'95), Washington, D.C., USA, July 17-21, 1995, pp. I-517-522.

* J. Kangas,* ** Increasing the Error Tolerance in Transmission of Vector Quantized Images by the Self-Organizing Maps**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN'95)*, Paris, France, October 9-12, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 287-291.

J. Kangas, ** Sample Weighting When Training Self-Organizing Maps for Image Compression**, *Proc. Neural Networks for Signal Processing V (NNSP'95)*, F. Girosi et al. (Eds.), IEEE, New York, 1995, pp. 343-350.

J. Kangas, ** Utilizing the Similarity Preserving Properties of Self-Organizing Maps in Vector Quantization of Images**, *Proc. IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 2081-2084.

J. Karhunen and J. Joutsensalo,** Generalizations of Principal Component Analysis, Optimization Problems, and Neural Networks**, * Neural Networks*, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 549-562, 1995.

J. Karhunen, E. Oja, L. Wang, R. Vigario, and J. Joutsensalo, ** A Class of Neural Networks for Independent Component Analysis**, Report A28, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Espoo, Finland, 1995, 29 p.

J. Karhunen, L. Wang, and J. Joutsensalo, ** Neural Estimation of Basis Vectors in Independent Component Analysis**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN-95)*, October 9-13, 1995, Paris, France, vol. 1, pp. 317-322.

J. Karhunen, L. Wang, and R. Vigario, ** Nonlinear PCA Type Approaches for Source Separation and Independent Component Analysis**, *Proc. International Conference. on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 995-1000.

S. Kaski and T. Kohonen,** Structures of Welfare and Poverty in the World Discovered by the Self-Organizing Map**, Report A24, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Espoo, Finland, 1995, 17 p.

K. Kiviluoto, ** Topology Preservation in Self-Organizing Maps**, Report A29, Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Espoo, Finland, 1995, 8 p.

T. Kohonen, ** Self-Organizing Maps**, Springer-Verlag, Series in Information Sciences, vol. 30, Heidelberg, 1995.

T. Kohonen, ** Emergence of Invariant-Feature Detectors in Self-Organization**, in *Computational Intelligence, A Dynamic System Perspective*, M. Palaniswami, Y. Attikiouzel, R.J. Marks II, D. Fogel, and T. Fukuda (Eds.), IEEE Press, 1995, Chapter 2, pp. 17-31.

T. Kohonen, ** Aivoalueiden ja muistin teoria**, in *Tutkimuksen etulinjassa*, J. Rydman (Ed.), WSOY, Porvoo, 1995, pp. 251-262 (in Finnish).

T. Kohonen, ** The Adaptive-Subspace SOM (ASSOM) and its Use for the Implementation of Invariant Feature Detection**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN'95)*, Paris, France, October 9-13, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 3-10.

T. Kohonen, ** Learning Vector Quantization**, in *The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks*, M.A. Arbib (Ed.), The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995, pp. 537-540.

T. Kohonen, **Method for controlling an electronic musical device by utilizing search arguments and rules to generate digital code sequences**, US Patent 5,418,323, May 23, 1995.

T. Kohonen (inventor), Oy Nokia Ab (assignee), **Adaptive detection method and detector for quantized signals**, US Patent 5,428,644, June 27, 1995.

H. Kälviäinen, P. Hirvonen, and E. Oja, ** Houghtool - A Software Package for Hough Transform Calculation**, *Proc. 9th Scandinavian. Conference on Image Analysis*, Uppsala, Sweden, June 6-9, 1995, pp. 841-848.

H. Kälviäinen, P. Hirvonen, L. Xu, and E. Oja, **Probabilistic and Non-Probabilistic Hough Transforms: Overview and Comparisons**, *Image and Vision Computing*, vol. 13, pp. 239-252, 1995.

J. Lampinen and E. Oja, **Distortion Tolerant Pattern Recognition Based on Self-Organizing Feature Extraction**, *IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks*, vol. 6, pp. 539-547, 1995.

E. Oja, **Principal Component Analysis**, in *The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks*, M. Arbib (Ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 753-756.

E. Oja, **Unsupervised Neural Learning**, in *Neural Networks for Chemical Engineers*, A. Bulsari (Ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995, pp. 21-32.

E. Oja, **The Nonlinear PCA Learning Rule and Signal Separation - Mathematical Analysis**, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Report A26, 1995, 24 p.

E. Oja, **PCA, ICA, and Nonlinear Hebbian Learning**, *Proc. International. Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN-95)*, Paris, France, October 9-13, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 89-94.

E. Oja and J. Karhunen, **Signal Separation by Nonlinear Hebbian Learning**, *in Computational Intelligence, A Dynamic System Perspective*, M. Palaniswami, Y. Attikiouzel, R.J. Marks II, D. Fogel, and T. Fukuda (Eds.), IEEE Press, 1995, Chapter 6, pp. 83-97.

E. Oja and O. Taipale, ** Applications of Learning and Intelligent Systems - the Finnish Technology Programme**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN-95)*, Industrial Session 1 (Neural Network Clubs & Funding Programme), Paris, France, Oct. 9-13, 1995.

E. Oja and K. Valkealahti, **Compressing Higher-Order Co-Occurrences for Texture Analysis Using the Self-Organizing Map**, *Proc. International Conference. on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 1160-1164.

P. Pajunen, J. Joutsensalo, J. Karhunen, and K. Saarinen, **Estimation of Equispaced Sinusoids Using Maximum Likelihood Method**, *Proc. 1995 Finnish Signal Processing Symposium (FINSIG'95)*, Espoo, Finland, June 1995, pp. 128-132.

P. Pajunen, J. Joutsensalo, J. Karhunen, and K. Saarinen, **Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Equispaced Sinusoids in Rotating Machine Fault Detection**, *Proc. 1995 International Conference on Signal Processing Applications and Technology (ICSPAT'95)*, Boston, USA, October 1995, pp. 1164-1168.

T. Pessi, J. Kangas, and O. Simula, **Patient Grouping Using Self-Organizing Map**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN'95)*, Industrial Session 5 (Medicine), Paris, France, October 9-12, 1995.

V. Pulkki, **Data Averaging inside Categories with the Self-Organizing Map**, Report A27, Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Espoo, Finland, 1995.

K. Raivio, J. Henriksson, and O. Simula, **Neural Detection of QAM Modulation in the Presence of Interference**, *Proc. IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1566-1569.

K. Raivio, J. Henriksson, and O. Simula, **Interference Cancellation for PAM Modulation using Neural Networks**, *Proc. of the Finnish Signal Processing Symposium*, Espoo, Finland, June 2, 1995, pp. 50-54.

O. Simula and J. Kangas, **Process Monitoring and Visualization Using Self-Organizing Maps**, *in Neural Networks for Chemical Engineers*, A. Bulsari (Ed.), Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1995, pp. 371-384.

H. Tang and O. Simula, **The Optimal Utilization of Multi-Service SCP**, *Proc. IFIP-TC6 Working Conference on Intelligent Systems*, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 28-31, 1995, pp. 157-167.

H. Tang and O. Simula, **Neural Adaptation for Optimal Traffic Shaping in Telephone Systems**, *Proc. 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1561-1565.

K. Torkkola and T. Kohonen, **Speech Recognition: A Hybrid Approach**, in *The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks*, M.A. Arbib (Ed.), The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995, pp. 907-910.

K. Valkealahti and A. Visa, **Simulated Annealing in Feature Weighting for Classification with Learning Vector Quantization**, *Proc. 9th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis*, Uppsala, Sweden, June 6-9, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 965-971.

R. Vigario and E. Oja, **Signal Separation and Feature Extraction by Nonlinear PCA Network**, *Proc. 9th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis*, Uppsala, Sweden, June 6-9, 1995, pp. 811-818.

A. Visa, J. Iivarinen, K. Valkealahti, and O. Simula, **Neural Network Based Cloud Classifier**, *Proc. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN'95)*, Industrial Session 14 (Remote Sensing), Paris, France, October 9-13, 1995.

J. Vuori and T. Kohonen, **Fast DSP Implementation of High-Dimensional Vector Classifier**, *Proc. 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 27 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 2019-2022.

L. Wang, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, **A Bigradient Optimization Approach for Robust PCA, MCA, and Source Separation**, *Proc. International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95)*, Perth, Australia, Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1995, vol. 3, pp. 1684-1689.

L. Wang, J. Karhunen, E. Oja, and R. Vigario, **Blind Separation of Sources Using Nonlinear PCA Type Learning Algorithms**, *Proc. International Conference on Neural Networks and Signal Processing (ICNNSP95)*, Nanjing, P.R. China, Dec. 10-13, 1995, pp. 847-850.